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Introduction to the History of Investment Casting

Update On Sep 29.2022

Introduction to the History of Investment Casting

Investment casting is a casting process with a history of more than 4,000 years. So far, investment casting has developed into a modern high-tech process. Surprisingly, its earliest forms used beeswax to create the patterns needed for the casting process, and is one of the oldest known metal forming techniques. Next, let us introduce the development history of investment casting in detail.


Earliest Investment Casting Application

The history of investment casting or lost-wax casting dates back thousands of years. Its earliest use was for idols, ornaments, and jewelry, using natural beeswax for patterns, clay for the molds, and manually operated bellows for stoking furnaces. Examples have been found across the world in India (2500–2000 BC), Egypt’s tombs of Tutankhamun (1333–1324 BC), Mesopotamia, Aztec and Mayan Mexico, and in Africa where the process produced detailed artwork of copper, bronze, and gold.

The earliest known documentation that describes the history of the investment casting process was written around 1100 A.D. by Theophilus Presbyter, a monk who described various manufacturing processes. This book was used by sculptor and goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini (1500–1571), who detailed in his autobiography the investment casting process he used for the Perseus with the Head of Medusa sculpture that stands in the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence, Italy. The process is essentially the same today.


About the Application of Modern Investment Casting

About 100 years ago, dental inlays and, later, surgical implants were made using the technique. World War II and then the introduction of gas turbines for military aircraft propulsion transformed the craft into a modern metal-forming process. Turbine blades and vanes had to withstand higher temperatures as designers increased engine efficiency by raising inlet gas temperatures. Initially, forged alloy steels were used but soon more heat-resistant alloys were needed, leading to the development of special nickel-base and to a lesser extent cobalt-base alloys, which became known as ‘superalloys’. Further alloy developments allowed turbine operation at even higher temperatures and greater efficiencies.


The Future of Investment Casting

The COVID-19 outbreak has had a swift and severe impact on many industries globally. The pandemic placed intense pressure on industries with a downward shift in global demand. With declining demand, the companies are examining their strategies and operational plans for the post-pandemic period. As economies are recovering slowly, the investment casting market is expected to grow positively during the forecast period.

The demand for investment casting is majorly driven by the growing aerospace and military industry, as there are many different applications and parts of aircraft, helicopters, and jets that are produced through investment casting. These include flight critical and safety components, landing and braking components, and hydraulic fluid system components, all of which are vital to the safety of the aircraft.

North America is currently leading the investment casting market. The factors attributable to the region’s growth are the expansion of the manufacturing, medical, and aerospace and military sectors. Asia-Pacific is projected to be the fastest-growing region over the forecast period. China is likely to lead the region as it is one of the significant countries that majorly contribute to the growth of the investment casting industry.



The technology of investment casting companies today allows for rapid prototyping, providing users with sample castings faster and cheaper than in the past. At besser casting, we use 3D printed patterns to deliver metal prototypes, ensuring your product's fit, shape and function at a lower cost. Thanks to this technology, investment casting has transformed from a very expensive process at the beginning of its history to one that helps reduce costs and lead times. Please contact us if you need. We will provide you with the best investment casting solutions and services!

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Besser Foundry is the top custom investment casting manufacturer in China. We can supply all kinds of different investment casting parts in steel, carbon steel, alloy steel, etc. Pls contact us if you have any need for investment casting solution!
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