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304 vs 316 Stainless Steel Casting

Update On Sep 08.2020

304 and 316 stainless steel castings

304 and 316 stainless steel castings are widely used in scenes that require corrosion resistance. Of course, although they are called stainless steel castings, wear and corrosion are only a matter of time, but they are still an excellent solution in harsh environments and can provide durable products in many areas.


What is 304 Stainless Steel Castings

304 stainless steel is the most common type of steel. As a widely used steel, it has good corrosion resistance, heat resistance, low-temperature strength, and mechanical properties; it has good hot workability such as stamping and bending, and no heat treatment hardening phenomenon (non-magnetic, Use temperature -196℃~800℃).

 

Advantages and Disadvantages of 304 Stainless Steel


Advantages Disadvantages
1. Excellent corrosion resistance 1. Lower heat resistance compared to some other stainless steel grades
2. Good strength and toughness 2. Lower resistance to chloride environments compared to 316 stainless steel
3. Versatile and suitable for various applications 3. Susceptible to surface pitting in certain corrosive environments
4. Hygienic and easy to clean 4. Moderate to high initial cost compared to other materials
5. Good weldability and formability 5. Limited resistance to high-temperature oxidation
6. Can withstand cryogenic temperatures 6. Lower impact strength compared to some other metals
7. Widely available and cost-effective 7. Susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in specific conditions
8. Retains properties in a wide temperature range 8. Not as hard or wear-resistant as some other materials

 

Application of 304 Stainless Steel Castings

The Main Application of 304 Stainless Steel Castings

Household products (part of the tableware, cabinets, indoor pipelines, water heaters, boilers, bathtubs)

Auto parts (windshield wipers, mufflers, molded products)

Medical equipment, building materials, chemistry, food industry, agriculture, ship parts, etc.

 

What is 316 Stainless Steel Castings

Due to the addition of molybdenum to 316 stainless steel, its corrosion resistance, atmospheric corrosion resistance, and high-temperature strength are particularly good. It can be used under harsh conditions; it has excellent work hardening properties (non-magnetic). When choosing austenitic stainless steel for marine applications, 316 stainless steel is generally considered to be one of the most suitable choices

 

Advantages and Disadvantages of 316 Stainless Steel


Advantages Disadvantages
1. Excellent corrosion resistance 1. Higher cost compared to other stainless steel grades
2. Superior resistance to chloride environments 2. Lower heat resistance compared to some other materials
3. High strength and toughness 3. Lower impact strength compared to some other metals
4. Good weldability and formability 4. Not as hard or wear-resistant as some other materials
5. Retains properties at elevated temperatures 5. Susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in specific conditions
6. Excellent resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion  
7. Hygienic and easy to clean  
8. Widely available and cost-effective  

 

Application of 316 Stainless Steel Castings

Equipment used in seawater, chemical, dye, paper, oxalic acid, fertilizer, and other production equipment;

Photography, food industry, coastal facilities, ropes, CD rods, bolts, nuts.

 

Common Applications of 304 and 316

304 and 316 stainless steel castings are widely used in everything from construction, medical treatment to food equipment. Stainless steel castings are very suitable for use in environments with high hygiene requirements, just like the examples of medical and food equipment mentioned above. For one thing , they will not react with corrosive acids. At the same time, surgical instruments and tableware made of stainless steel are easy to clean and disinfect.

Another reason for using stainless steel is that they do not require powder coating to resist corrosion and can maintain a beautiful appearance.

 

Difference Between 304 and 316 Stainless Steel

Property 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel
Composition Contains 18% chromium and 8% nickel Contains 16-18% chromium, 10-14% nickel, and 2-3% molybdenum
Corrosion Resistance Resistant to atmospheric corrosion and mild chemical environments More resistant to corrosion, including pitting and crevice corrosion, especially in chloride environments
Applications Commonly used in food processing equipment, kitchen appliances, and architectural trim Widely used in marine environments, pharmaceutical equipment, and chemical processing
Weldability Excellent weldability with good forming and drawing properties Good weldability, but requires more attention to prevent sensitization and ensure corrosion resistance
Strength Relatively high tensile strength Slightly higher tensile strength compared to 304 stainless steel
Temperature Resistance Good resistance to high temperatures, up to 870°C (1600°F) Better resistance to high temperatures, up to 925°C (1700°F)
Cost Generally lower cost compared to 316 stainless steel Higher cost due to the addition of molybdenum

 

Chemical Composition
Grades 304 316
Carbon C:≤0.08 C :≤0.08
Manganese Mn :≤2.0 Mn:≤2.00
Phosphorus P :≤0.035 P :≤0.035
Sulfur S :≤0.03 S :≤0.030
Silicon Si :≤1.0 Si:≤1.00
Nickel Ni :8.0~10.5 Ni:10.00~14.00
Chromium Cr :18.0~20.0 Cr:16.00~18.50

 

Performance comparison of 304 and 316
Material 304 316
Tensile strengthσb(MPa) ≥520 ≥520
Conditional yield strength σ0.2 (MPa) ≥205 ≥205
Elongation δ5 (%) ≥40 ≥40
Reduction of area ψ (%) ≥60 ≥60
Hardness ≤187HB,≤90HRB,≤200HV ≤187HB,≤90HRB,≤200HV
Density 20℃ g/cm3 7.93 7.93
Melting point (℃) 1398~1454 1398-1420

 

304 and 316 Stainless Steel Castings, Which One to Choose?

There is no fixed answer. Generally speaking, if the use environment is salty or acidic, choose AISI316, which is the main and clearest dividing line between the two stainless sheets of steel. What is the working temperature used? The high temperature will accelerate corrosion , so higher grades are more suitable. What is your budget? If AISI 316 is not necessary, AISI 304 will be cheaper. The cost of the former is about 25% higher than the latter.

Besser Foundry is a professional stainless steel investment casting manufacturer in China. We can customize different types of stainless steel castings according to customers' drawings or samples. If you have any inquiry about stainless steel castings, please feel free to contact us!

 

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